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The name “Tsonga” includes Tsonga, Tswa, and Ronga. The 6 main dialects identified by HP Junod are: N’walungu (Luleke, Valoyi), Hlave, Nkuna, Gwamba, Nhlanganu, Djonga, Machabe, and Bila.[clarification needed] The “Tsonga” people are grandchildren of “Gwambe na Dzhavana”.[who?]

 Geographic distribution

Tsonga is spoken by about 1,972,000[3] people in South Africa’s Limpopo province as well as Gauteng Province and Mpumalanga Province, as well as 1.5 million people in Mozambique, and 25,000 people in Swaziland. There are also 100,000 speakers inZimbabwe.

In South Africa most of Vatsonga were concentrated in places like e.g. Nkowankowa, Giyani, Malamulele, N’wamitwa, Muhlava, Hlanganani (Elim) in Limpopo and Bushbuckridge (ka Mpisana) and others in Mpumalanga. There are also large numbers in the Northwest, KwaZulu-Natal (Tembe) and Gauteng provinces. Basically they can be found anywhere in the old Transvaal.

 Official status

Tsonga is an official language in South Africa. It has been suggested to be made official in Zimbabwe according to the new constitution. All Tswa-Ronga languages are recognised in Mozambique. It is not official in Swaziland.


The following excerpts from an article from  Fana, ,  is one of the best to shed more light on this. Very enlightenigng.

There is still a huge amount of confusion with regards to differentiating who or what is Shangaan or Tsonga. Before we can understand Tsonga history, it is fair to clarify how Shangaans became Tsonga. The term Shangaan is used interchangeably with Tsonga; however the meaning is one but only to those of the Tsonga tribe.

Who is Tsonga then?

The Tsonga tribe originates from East Africa; we are a tribe without a king. We moved down to the south of Africa, namely Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe. We grew our tribe through assimilating other tribes such as Vakalanga (Valoyi), Ndlovu and the Shangaans to name a few. Today, all Tsonga tribes share one identity even though origins differ. The issue is with the term or category, even though linguistics groups us as one. Tribal divisions make other Tsonga groups reject the title Shangaan or Tsonga. This is an issue of identity, even though our origins, culture and languages are similar. The Shangaan tribe is accused of wanting to yet again attempt to rule the whole Tsonga tribe by replacing its existence. The Shangaan tribe shadows other Tsonga tribes; also the other Tsonga tribes such as Vandzawu and VaTshwa refuse the term Tsonga.
The core of this discussion is origin and context of the tribe and term Shangaan. (Read more on his website given above)


Being a Mutsonga myself, I have tried to contribute by compiling this list which is non-exhaustive in an effort to assist the understanding and learning of the Tsonga language. Not enough documentary and work is being done to preserve this language. I will definitely welcome feedback and more information to expand this topic and effort.


  • Good Morning  = “ Avuxeni “  –  also generally used as an equivalent of “Hello” anytime of the day mainly when  you have not seen or spoken to the person before.
  • Good day ( midday) – “Inhlekanhi”
  • Good afternoon – “Indzengha” ( some translations confuses the Good afternoon and Good day for  “inhlekanhi”
  • Good evening – “ Riperile ” or “ imadyambu”
  • Good night –  Vusiku lebyinene or  Etlela kahle ( sleep well)

 Time of the Day

  •  Dawn – Mahlambandlopfu
  • Morning  – Mixo  or mpudzu
  • Day  – Siku
  • Night  – Vusiko
  • Black –  Ntima
  • White –  Basa
  • Grey – ?
  • Blue – Wasi
  • Green – Rihlaza
  • Yellow – Xitshopana
  • Gold – Nsuku
  • Orange – Lamula
  • Red – Tshwuka
  • Maroon – ?
  • Brown – Ribungwa
  • Pink -?

Geographic Directions

  • North  – N’walungu
  • South – Dzonga
  • West – Vupeladyambu
  • East – Vuxa (Vuxeni)

Days of the week

  • Sunday – Sonto
  • Monday – Musumbunuko
  • Tuesday – raVumbirhi
  • Wednesday – raVunharu
  • Thursday – raVumune
  • Friday – raVunthlanu
  • Saturday – Mugqibela

Months of the year

  • January – Sunguti (Beginning/Genesis). Symbolic start of the cycle.
  • February – Nyenyanyana (Baby birds). Many young chicks are observed to hatch during this month.
  • March –           Nyenyankulu (Grown-up / bigger birds). Birds have matured to near adult or adult stage.
  • April – Dzivamisoko (Setting up traps). “Misoko” are “birds traps”.  Herdboys usually set these traps this month to catch the matured birds – birds hunting season.
  • May – Mudyaxihi ( “eat per your choice “ – Cornucopia – Abundance of food and crops). People are spoilt for choice owing to the available varieties of food crops which are being harvested from the fields.
  • June – Khotavuxika (Start of the cold season). This is the beginning of the cold season.
  • July -Mawuwani (Light breeze). The  cold days become a little windy giving a “woo” sound mainly from the many artefacts that the Tsonga people used to keep.
  • August – Mhawuri (Gale winds). The winds are much stronger .
  • September – Ndzhati ( from Ndlati , meaning Lightning). This is the time when rain is often accompanied by thunder and lightning. Superstition has it that an animal falls from the sky signifying the advert of rain.
  • October – Nhlangula (An edible plant bears fruit). Many trees, in particular the ‘nhlangula’  tree  has ripened and bears its fruit.
  • November – Hukuri (Chicken egg-laying period ). Month during which  many chicken are seen laying and hatch their many eggs.
  • December – N’wendzamhala (Ending). Everything comes to an end; with impala breeding in large numbers, hunting season begins.

Numbers  1- 100, 1000, 1 million,

  • One                 N’we
  • Two                 Mbirhi
  • Three               Nharhu
  • Four                 Mune
  • Five                  Ntlhanu
  • Six                    Ntsevu
  • Seven               Nkombo
  • Eight                Nhungu
  • Nine                 Nkaye
  • Ten                  Khume
  • Eleven            Khumen’we
  • Twelve            Khumembirhi
  • Thirteen          Khumenharhu
  • Fourteen          Khumemune
  • Fifteen            Khumentlhanu
  • Sixteen            Khumentsevu
  • Seventeen       Khumekombo
  • Eighteen          Khumenhungu
  • Nineteen         Khumenkaye
  • Twenty            Makumembirhi
  • Twenty one     Makumembirhin’we
  • Twenty two     Makumembirhimbirhi
  • Twenty three   Makumembirhinharhu
  • Twenty four     Makumembirhimune
  • Twenty five     makumenharhuntlhanu
  • Twenty six       makumembirhitsevu
  • Twenty seven  makumembirhinkombo
  • Twenty eight   makumembirhinhungu
  • Twenty nine    makumembirhikaye
  • Thirty               makumenharhu
  • Thirty one        makumenharhun’we
  • Thirty two        makumenharhumbirhi
  • Thirty three     makumenharhunharhu
  • Thirty four       makumenharhumune
  • Thirty five        makumemunentlhanu
  • Thirty six         makumenharhutsevu
  • Thirty seven    makumenharhunkombo
  • Thirty eight     makumenharhunhungu
  • Thirty nine       makumenharhukaye
  • Forty                makumemune
  • Forty one         makumemunen’we
  • Forty two         makumemunembirhi
  • Forty three      makumemunenharhu
  • Forty four        makumemunemune
  • Forty five         makumemunentlhanu
  • Forty six           makumemunetsevu
  • Forty seven      makumemunenkombo
  • Forty eight       makumemunenhungu
  • Forty nine        makumemunekaye
  • Fifty                 makumentlhanu
  • Fifty one          makumemunen’we
  • Fifty two          makumemunembirhi
  • Fifty three       makumemunenharhu
  • Fifty four         makumemunemune
  • Fifty five          makumemunentlhanu
  • Fifty six            makumemunetsevu
  • Fifty seven       makumemunenkombo
  • Fifty eight        makumemunenhungu
  • Fifty nine         makumemunekaye
  • Sixty                 makumetsevu
  • Sixty one          makumetsevun’we
  • Sixty two          makumetsevumbirhi
  • Sixty three       makumetsevunharhu
  • Sixty four         makumetsevumune
  • Sixty five          makumetsevu nthlanu
  • Sixty six           makumetsevutsevu
  • Sixty seven      makumetsevunkombo
  • Sixty eight       makumetsevunhungu
  • Sixty nine         makumetsevukaye
  • Seventy            makumenkombo
  • Seventy one     makumenkombon’we
  • Seventy two     makumenkombombirhi
  • Seventy three  makumenkombonharhu
  • Seventy four    makumenkombomune
  • Seventy five     makumenkombo nthlanu
  • Seventy six      makumenkombotsevu
  • Seventy sevenmakumenkombonkombo
  • Seventy eight  makumenkombonhungu
  • Seventy nine    makumenkombokaye
  • Eighty              makumenhungu
  • Eighty one       makumenhungun’we
  • Eighty two       makumenhungumbirhi
  • Eighty three    makumenhungunharhu
  • Eighty four      makumenhungumune
  • Eighty five       makumenhungu nthlanu
  • Eighty six         makumenhungutsevu
  • Eighty seven    makumenhungunkombo
  • Eighty eight     makumenhungunhungu
  • Eighty nine      makumenhungukaye
  • Ninety              makumekaye
  • Ninety one       makumekayen’we
  • Ninety two       makumekayembirhi
  • Ninety three    makumekayenharhu
  • Ninety four      makumekayemune
  • Ninety five       makumekaye nthlanu
  • Ninety six        makumekayetsevu
  • Ninety seven   makumekayenkombo
  • Ninety eight    makumekayenhungu
  • Ninety nine      makumekayekaye
  • One hundred   dzana

Tsonga Useful phrases

  • My name is … –  Vito ra mina  i…
  • I love you – Ndza ku rhandza
  • You are beautiful – U sasekile
  • My lover – murhandziwa

Seasons of the year

  • Spring – Ximun’wana
  • Summer – Ximumu
  • Autumn – Xixikana
  • Winter – Xixika
Domestic animals

  • Dog – Mbyana
  • Cat  – Ximanga
  • Pig – Nguluve /Honci
  • Donkey – Mbhongholo
  • Horse – Hanci
  • Goat – Mbuti
  • Cattle – Homu
  • Duck – Sekwa
  • Chicken – Huku
  • Dove – Tuva
  • Sheep – Nyimpfu
  • Turkey – Galankulu


Wild animals

  • Lion – Nghala
  • Elephant – Ndlopfu
  • Tiger – Yinghwe
  • Rhino – “Mhungubye”
  • Buffalo – Nyarhi

Other wild animails

  • Impala – Mhala
  • Hare – Mpfundla
  • Warthog – Nguluve-Nhova
  • Zebra –  Mangwa
  • Giraffe – Nhutlwa
  • Babboon – Mfenhe
  • Monkey – Rintoho
  • Hyena – Mhisi
  • Jackal – Mhungbye
  • Wildbeast – Homgonyi







tt : @kcmakhubele, Ln: KC Makhubele,

As we approach the 7th of May election day in SA, as a young person consider the following amongst others. Political parties will be vying for seats in parliament where they are supposed to make decisions on our behalf with a promise of creating jobs or creating a better environment for job creation.


Almost 25% of all South Africans are jobless with the unemployment 2014 up on 1994 20%, according to the South African Institute of Race Relations. 50% of young people who have left school in South Africa are unemployed according to Narnia Bohler-Muller from the Human Social Research Council and this makes South Africa a third in the world, after Greece and Spain, when it comes to youth unemployment.
This is an issue that directly affect young people and has a huge impact in their future. Yet the we hear that South Africa could be heading for its lowest voter turnout of the past 20 years with about 46% of eligible voters not turning up at the polls. 10.2 million eligible voters have not bothered to register with 64 % of these being of the age between 18 and 34. About 6.5 million of young voters in this bracket have not bothered to register! 43% of the 10.2 million are looking for employment. Now there is very little we can do now for this group but for those who have registered make sure you head to the polls and vote!


I hear people (sometimes young people themselves) refer to young people as the leaders of tomorrow, the future of this country etc. I say you are the leaders today for leadership does not have a minimum age of commencement. Your future should be built and start being lived today! Don’t postpone it to tomorrow. So you need to act and act in a manner that builds for tomorrow. This is why it’s important that you go and vote. When political parties get elected into parliament, they will be speaking on your behalf yet they would have been robbed of your voice during these elections. They may even be robbed of your voice in the next 5 years. It would mean that they decisions being made will not necessarily benefit you. I am thinking of matters like: Education, the Economy, Health, Employment etc. The parliamentarians’ idea of South Africa could even be “outdated”. Their reference point could be 30 – 70 years back. Your outlook is newer. You need to be heard. You need to influence. You need to participate in your future and not remain spectators. The Youth of 1976 rose up and though their actions they influenced the course of history.


When you go make the mark, vote intelligently. You don’t owe anyone how you vote. You don’t owe Mandela, the ANC, IFP, PAC, DA your parents etc. anything! You owe your future. Yes we should be grateful of what the likes of Mandela and all liberation parties have done. We should be thankful of the contributions of the former white liberal parties’ contribution to the freedom we have. But no one has to vote based on the past. We should not vote because of the sentiments our dear parents hold. Don’t vote what your mates tell you. Don’t vote without thinking. Vote for the party that resonate with your needs and aspirations, the party that will take your future seriously and forward. We are spoiled for choice in these elections. We have so many parties registered for the national vote, including new parties like AgangSA, EFF and older parties like the ANC and DA.


You may think that your votes does not count or will not make a difference. If this is you, then you are mistaken. One vote could swing the seat to your preferred candidate/party. This will allow your party to represent you. Go in the morning, go during lunch time, go in the afternoon – whatever you do, if you are a registered young voter Go and Vote.

Good luck.


I look around to that power that maybe in South Africa’s corporate and public sector and I reach the aforementioned conclusion. Why is it that the economy in SA is growing so poorly? Who is to blame? – is it the government or the private sector or both?  Where are the voices of reason and insight that should be championing the cause and movement for the revolution of our economy? (We cannot debate the fact that our economy is in dire straits when it should be growing at a better rate)

Many of our so called leaders are happy to sit in their glass and gold-plated offices and continue to earn their comfortable salaries, with chosen oblivion of the sliding economic situation in our country. The long term future for them does not seem to bother much; after all they will not be here and would be living on their plush pensions and other benefits.  That employee who is working very hard on the ground, by the time he has an opportunity to lead the same organisation, it would have been reduced to nothing. What is a leader when you can’t actually lead?

We need leaders who are not afraid to speak their mind and follow with action against corruption   and mediocre performance in their multiple forms emanating from both corporate and public sector. Leaders who have a knack of foresight and vision, taking their followers and the market into the future. Leaders who are ready to break new frontiers. Courageous leaders who are willing to engage in taking SA to double digits economic growth. For heaven’s lets more SA companies start to buy into and own international companies. Let’s really expand to Africa and the world! Leaders who are passionate about the future of this country – I can hardly count them on my fingers unfortunately. We have a lot of managers, some of who are just lazy leaders.

This is a clarion call to all who can make a difference – and all can make a difference to stop the dangerous downward slide of our economy. Do it in your own way, join forces with someone, but whatever you do, do something!

Aaaah South Africa!!!  DO SOMETHING !!!!




By KC Makhubele, B Com, MBA

How many people are happy with the salary that they are currently receiving? Who would not jump at a chance of a salary increase if they were offered one, or knew that if they ask they would get it? How many when they receive their salary wished it was just a few digits more? Now, how many would answer in the positive to most if not all of these questions?
The issue is not whether people would like to have a salary raise, but the “HOW” is what deters people from taking the courage to ask for it. The fact is that if you don’t ask for a raise, the likelihood for the company doing it on their own accord and outside of the normal salary review and increment season is unlikely. To get a salary increase you need to ask for it by name! Here are some tips on making sure that when you do decide to ask for a salary raise you do in fact stand a chance of getting it.


The fact that you want or need a salary raise, is not enough unless you have a credible case to present. Asking for an increase because your expenses are higher than your income is not a compelling case. Some of the more credible reasons could be:

  • You are underpaid in comparison to same or similar positions in the industry.
  • You are a super performer and you have been getting a similar “across the board    increase “like everyone in the company. You must have your performance history and tenure in the organisation. Do you have a view of the results of your colleagues?
  • You can show that your individual effort have contributed more to the bottom line of the organisation. Have your financial data to support
  • Your skills set are highly specialised, critical to the organisation and sought after in the industry. Have statistics to back this up.

Timing is everything. It does not help asking for a raise when the organisation is not doing well and have called for a cost curtailment exercise. It is also important to note that an organisation that is unprofitable, despite your value to them, may not be able to afford what you are asking for. It is essential therefore to check if it is the right time to ask for a raise and ensure you are aware that the organisation can afford it. I find one of the best times to start this conversation is when the organisation is working on their budget and preparing for a salary increment. This way they can budget for “above the norm” increase for you.

Check what other people in the same or similar position as yourself, within your organisation, your industry and competition are earning. Do they earn more than you earn? Use salary surveys to bolster your position and your case. If you belong to a professional body, study their data and speak to relevant officials. The job adverts on newspapers and job portal can serve as useful source of information.

Going to the employer fixated on a traditional increase may lessen your chances of actually improving your salary situation. It may also lead to either, a Yes or No answer from the organisation. Consider the following as some of the options:

  •   Once off lump sum bonus payment outside of the normal incentive scheme standards.
  • Payments towards the cost of your career development. A fully paid holiday for your family to a destination of your choice
  • Giving or increasing your equity in the organisation
  • A fully paid sabbatical etc.

We all hope for a “Yes” response to our request, yet the fact is that we may sometimes get a “No” for an answer. We must be fully prepared for this so that we are not shocked and immobilised if this is the case. So what if the response from the employer /boss is a No? Think about your alternatives? Will you try your luck another time? Will you accept that this is your salary level as long as you work in your current employ? Will you resign? Will you drop your performance? Whatever you do has its own consequences and must be deliberated upon carefully. Whatever you do, be prepared for a NO.

Don’t set a meeting with a person who will not help advance your course – find out who is the right person. This is an important matter for you and a financial commitment from your employer and you need proper planning. Ask for a meeting in advance and specify the reason for your meeting. This is not a meeting to discuss “matters pertaining to me” or “my financial issues” but a meeting to discuss “my request for a salary review and increase/raise /improvement”. That’s what it is, call it by name. This will also help the employer to come prepared and thus make the meeting more constructive and fruitful.

Sometimes when people want to ask for a salary increase they lose their cool and start behaving and thinking irrationally and subjectively. This is an emotive subject. Many have managed to secure the meeting and completely froze in front of the employer or boss. Alternatively they would get cold feet and cancel the meeting. I suggest that you take time to practice your strategy, storyline and you are calm. Get your partner /friend or someone you trust to act as the employer and play a “devil’s advocate” by asking difficult question and also critique your storyline. This may help prepare you to stand strong in front of your boss.

If you don’t show up, your case will not present itself. It is you who is feeling the pain and must communicate this to the employer. If you don’t pitch up, the employer may assume that this is not so critical after all.

Good luck to you in getting that raise you deserve. I will be keen to hear from you if these tips have indeed assisted you in your quest.


Twitter: @kcmakhubele
LinkedIn: KC Makhubele


The Bible is all the word of God and the Wors is Jesus. In all thw 66 books, we see Jesus manifested, long before he was born , when on earth and when he ahd ascended to heaven.

Below is a  non exhaustive depiction and breakdown of how He is pictured in each of the book. The way he is depicted has a specific reference to the message he brought and left on earth. We will look at the books from Genesis to Revelation

Genesis The Seed of the Woman Messiah would be born of the seed of a woman (Gen 3:15, Luke 1:34-35) Messiah would be a descendant of Abraham, Isaac & Jacob (Gen 12:3, 17:19, 28:14, Luke 3:23-34) Messiah would be a king in the line of Judah (Gen 49:10, John 1:49) Typified in the person of Melchizedek (Gen 14:18) The life of Isaac – the sacrificed son (Gen 22) The life of Joseph – the rejected brother (Gen 37)

Exodus The Passover Lamb Typified in the life of Moses – the deliverer The Passover Lamb (Ex 12, John 1:29,36) The Manna from Heaven (Ex 16, John 6) The Rock struck at Horeb (Ex 17, 1 Cor 10:4)

The Tabernacle (Brazen Altar, Lampstand, Table of Showbread, Ark of the covenant etc) (Gen 25-30)

Leviticus The High Priest Typified in the sacrifices and offerings (Lev 1-7) In the Jewish festivals (Passover, Atonement, Lev 16, 23) In the scapegoat (Lev 16:7-9) In the person and duties of the High Priest (Lev 16)

Numbers The Cloud and The Fire Messiah would be a King (Num 24:17) Typified in the bronze serpent (Num 21:8-9) The Water from the Rock (Num 20)

Deuteronomy The Prophet Like Moses Messiah will be a prophet (Deut 18:15-19, John 6:14) Messiah would be worshipped by angels (Deut 32:43, Luke 2:13-14) Typified in the cities of refuge (Deut 4:41)

Joshua The Captain of Our Salvation Typified in the person of Joshua (our leader into the promised land) In the Promised Land In the Commander of the Army (Josh 5:13-15)

Judges The Judge And Lawgiver Typified in the Judges (for He is true Judge of the living and the dead)

Ruth The Kinsman Redeemer Messiah would be a descendant of Boaz and Ruth (Ruth 4:12-17) Typified in the life of Boaz – The Kinsman Redeemer (Ruth 2:1)

1 & 2 Samuel The Prophet of The Lord Messiah exalted by God with power (1 Sam 2:10, Matt 28:18)

Messiah would be a descendant of David (2 Sam 7:12-16, Matt 1:1) Messiah would be the ‘Rock’ (2 Sam 23:2-3, 1 Cor 10:4) Typified in the life of David – The King in Exile (1 Sam 22) The life of Jonathon – the faithful friend (1 Sam 18:1-4)

1 & 2 Kings The Reigning King Typified in the life of Solomon (the MillennialReign) In the life and miracles of the prophet Elisha (multiplying bread 2 Kings 4:42, healing leper 2 Kings 5)

1 & 2 Chronicles Messiah would be from the tribe of Judah (1 Chron 5:2, Luke 3:23-32) Typified in Solomon’s temple In the Wisdom of Solomon (2 Chron 9:22)

Ezra The Faithful Scribe Typified in person of Zerubbabel, the rebuilder of the temple (Ezra 4)

Nehemiah The Rebuilder of the Walls Typified in the person of Nehemiah, the rebuilder of the walls of salvation

Esther Mordecai Typified in the person of Mordecai

Job The Dayspring From on High Typified in the sufferings of Job and the blessings that would follow.

Psalms The Lord Who Is Our Shepherd Messiah would be the Son of God (Ps 2:7, 12, Matt 17:5) Messiah would be resurrected (Ps 16:8-10, Acts 13:30-37) Messiah would be despised & crucified (Ps 22:6-8, 14, Luke 23:21-23, Matt 27:35) Messiah would be hated without cause (Ps 69:4, Luke 23:13-22) Messiah would be Lord, seated at the right hand of God (Ps 110:1,5, 1 Pet 3:21-22) Messiah would be in the line of Melchizedek (Ps 110:4, Heb 6:17-20) Messiah would be the ‘stone’ rejected by the Jews (Ps 118:22, Matt 21:42-43) Key Messianic Psalms: Chapters 2, 8, 16, 22, 45, 69, 89, 109, 110, 118

Proverbs & Ecclesiastes The Wisdom of God Messiah would be from everlasting (Prov 8:22-23, John 17:5) Messiah would be the Son of God (Prov 30:4, Matt 3:16-17) Typified in the Wisdom of God (Prov 8:22-31)

Song of Solomon The Lover & Bridegroom Typified in the Bridegroom’s love for, and marriage to, the bride.

Isaiah The Suffering Servant

Messiah would be born of a virgin (Is 7:14, Luke 1:34-35) Messiah would be Immanuel “God with us” (Is 7:14, Matt 1:21-23) Messiah would be God and Man (Is 9:6, John 10:30) Messiah would have the 7-fold Spirit upon Him (Is 11:1-2, Matt 3:16-17, Revelation 4:5) Messiah would heal the blind, lame, deaf (Is 35:5-6, Mark 10:51-52) Messiah would be proceeded by a forerunner (Is 40:3, Luke 1:17) Messiah would be a light to the gentiles (Is 42:6, John 8:12) Messiah would be despised by the Jewish nation (Is 49:7, John 10:20, Matt 27:23) Messiah would be whipped and beaten (Is 50:6, Matt 26:67, 27:26) Messiah would die as a guilt offering for sin (Is 53:10, John 18:11) Messiah would be resurrected and live forever (Is 53:10, Mark 16:16)

Jeremiah & Lamentations The Weeping Prophet Messiah would be God (Jer 23:6, John 13:13) Messiah would be a righteous Branch (Jer 23:5) Messiah would be our righteousness (Jer 23:6, 1 Cor 1:30)

Ezekiel The Son of Man Messiah would be a descendant of David (Ez 34:23-24, Matt 1:1)

Daniel The Son of Man coming in the clouds of Heaven Messiah would be ‘a son of man’ given an everlasting kingdom

(Dan7:13-14, Luke 1:31-34) Messiah would come 483 years after the decree to rebuild Jerusalem (Dan 9:25, John 12:12-23)

Messiah would be killed (Dan 9:26, Matt 27:35) Revealed as the ‘stone’ (and His kingdom) that smashes the kingdoms of the world (Dan 2:34,44) Typified in the 4th man in the fiery furnace – one like ‘the son of gods’ (Dan 3:25)

Hosea The Bridegroom Typified in Hosea’s faithfulness to his adulterous wife (Hos 3)

Joel The Baptizer With The Holy Spirit Messiah will offer salvation to all mankind (Joel 2:32, Rom 10:12-13) Messiah would baptize people with the Holy Spirit (Joel 2:28-32)

Amos The Burden Bearer God would darken the day at noon during Messiah’s death (Amos 8:9, Matt 27:45-46)

Obadiah The Mighty Savior

Jonah The Forgiving God Typified in Jonah being 3 days and 3 nights in the belly of a fish (Jon 1:17, Matt 12:40)

Micah The Messenger With Beautiful Feet Messiah would be born in Bethlehem (Mic 5:2, Matt 2:1-2) Messiah would be from everlasting (Mic 5:2, Rev:1-8)

Nahum The Avenger of God’s Elect

Habakkuk The Great Evangelist, Crying For Revival Messiah would come from Teman at His return, full of glory (Hab 3:3) Typified in the life of Habakkuk (his intercession and prayer for his people)

Zephaniah The Restorer of the Remnant

Haggai The Cleansing Fountain Messiah would visit the 2nd temple (Hag 2:6-9, Luke 2:27-32)

Zechariah The Pierced Son Messiah would be Priest and King (Zech 6:12-13, Heb 8:1) Messiah would be ride into Jerusalem on a donkey (Zech 9:9, Matt 21:6-9) Messiah would be God (Zech 11:12-13, John 12:45) Messiah would be pierced (Zech 12:10, John 19:34-37)

Malachi The Son of Righteousness Messiah would appear at the temple (Mal 3:1, Mark 11:15-16) Messiah’s forerunner would come in the spirit of Elijah (Mat 4:5, Matt 3:1-2)

Matthew The Messiah The Son of David (Matt 1:1) The King of the Jews (Matthew 2:2) The Son of God (Matthew 2:15). The Bridegroom (Mattew 9:15)

Mark The Miracle Worker The Holy One of God (Mark 1:24) The Servant (Mark 10:45) The King of Israel (Mark 15:32)

Luke The Son of Man The Horn of Salvation (Luke 1:69) The Consolation of Israel: (Luke 2:25).

John The Son of God The Only Begotten Son: (John 1:14,18) The Lamb of God (John 1:29,36) The Bread of life (John 6:35)

The Light of the World (John 8:1) The I AM! (John 8:58) The Door of the Sheep: (John 10:7,9) The Good Shepherd (John 10:11)

The Resurrection and life (John 11:25) The Way, the Truth, the Life (John 14:6) The True Vine (John 15:1)

Acts The Ascended Lord The Prince of Life (Acts 3:15) The Judge of the living and the dead (Acts 10:42) The Just One (Acts 7:52). The Hope of Israel (Acts 28:20)

Romans The Justifier The Rock of Offense (Romans 9:33)

The Deliverer (Romans 11:26) The Lord of the dead and the living (Romans 14:9) The Root of Jesse (Romans 15:12)

1 & 2 Corinthians The Last Adam The First-fruits (1 Corinthians 15:23) The Last Adam (1 Corinthians 15:45)

Galatians The One Who Sets Us Free The Lord Jesus Christ (Gal 1:3)

Ephesians The Christ of Riches The Head over All Things (Ephesians 1:22) The Cornerstone: (Ephesians 2:20)

Philippians The God Who Meets Our Every Need The Name above all names (Philippians 2:9)

Colossians The Fullness of The Godhead The Image of the Invisible God (Colossians 1:15) The Head of the body (Colossians 1:18)

The Beginning (Colossians 1:18) The Firstborn from the dead (Colossians 1:18) The Hope of Glory (Col 1:27)

1 & 2 Thessalonians The Soon Coming King The Lord of Peace (2 Thessalonians 3:16)

1 & 2 Timothy The Mediator Between God And Man The King of Ages (1 Timothy 1:17) The Mediator (1 Timothy 2:5)

Titus The Blessed Hope (Titus 2:13) The Great God and Savior (Titus 2:13)

Philemon The Friend, Closer Than a Brother The Lord Jesus Christ (Philemon 3)

Hebrews The Blood That Washes Away My Sins The Heir of All Things (Hebrews 1:2) The Faithful High Priest (Hebrews 2:17) The Author and Finisher of our Faith (Hebrews 12:2)

James The Great Physician The Lord of Glory (James 2:1) The Judge at the door (James 5:9)

1 & 2 Peter The Chief Shepherd The Living Stone (1 Peter 2:4) The Chief Shepherd (1 Peter 5:4)

1 & 2 & 3 John Everlasting Love The Eternal Life (1 John 1:2) The Righteous (1 John 2:1)

Jude The God our Savior The Only Wise God our Savior (Jude 25)

Revelation The King of Kings and the Lord of Lords! The Alpha and Omega, the First and the Last: (Revelation 1:17, 22:13) The Lion of the Tribe of Judah (Rev 5:5) The Word of God (Revelation 19:13). The King of kings and Lord of lords (Revelation 19:16) The Bright Morning Star (Revelation 22:16)

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